URINATION AND LONG TOILET QUEUES
Lack of access to sanitation in emergency often leads to indiscriminate urination, especially if there are long toilet queues. Moreover, the limited number of toilets present is used inefficiently: people who urinate occupy the space of people who want to defecate. The introduction of 'public' urinals is expected to boost the efficiency of the existing toilets: the use of sanitation facilities will increase, the waiting time for toilets will decrease and the lifetime of dug pits and raised latrines will increase. These urinals should be attractive and safe to use, lightweight to transport by air to emergency situations and easy to install. The urinals need to be equipped with a urine management facility: a storage container that can be emptied or, in the worst case a soak pit for disposal. As a guide, a urinal that serves 50 people and is emptied on a two weekly basis, with each person producing 1ℓ per person per day, will need a the tank of around 1m3.